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          2. xyz儿童英语网

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            过去完成时的语法判定

             GUOQUWANCHENGSHIDEYUFAPANDING

              由时间状语来判定
             
              一般说来,各种时态都有特定的时间状语。与过去完成时连用的时间状语有:
             
              ( 1 ) by + 过去的时间点。如:
             
              I had finished reading the novel by nine o'clock last night.
             
              ( 2 ) by the end of + 过去的时间点。如:
             
              We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term.
             
              ( 3 ) before + 过去的时间点。如:
             
              They had planted six hundred trees before last Wednesday.
             
              由“过去的过去”来判定
             
              过去完成时表示“过去的过去”,是指过去某一动作之前已经发生或完成的动作,即动作有先后关系,动作在前的用过去完成时,在后的用一般过去时。这种用法常出现在:
             
              ( 1 )宾语从句中
             
              当宾语从句的主句为一般过去时,且从句的动作先于主句的动作时,从句要用过去完成时。在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。如:
             
              She said that she had seen the film before.
             
              ( 2 )状语从句中
             
              在时间、条件、原因、方式等状语从句中,主、从句的动作发生有先后关系,动作在前的,要用过去完成时,动作在后的要用一般过去时。如:
             
              After he had finished his homework, he went to bed.
             
              注意: before, after 引导的时间状语从句中,由于 before 和 after 本身已表达了动作的先后关系,若主、从句表示的动作紧密相连,则主、从句都用一般过去时。如:
             
              After he closed the door, he left the classroom.
             
              (3)表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…"
             
              We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.
             
              根据上、下文来判定
             
              I met Wang Tao in the street yesterday. We hadn't seen each other since he went to Beijing.
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